Lipid Bilayer Or Polarized Multilayers?
Re: Cells are not made from double fat layer with water in between — you’ve said it many times, but isn’t this shown looking through the microscope?
Ray Peat (“Membranes, plasma membranes, and surfaces,” 2006-2016) wrote …
“The ideas of a plasma membrane on the cell, and of the water-barrier function of the skin, are two distinct things, that have been blurred together in a thoughtless way.”
Go to Ray Peat’s website to read the rest of his blog entry for an explanation of why scientists “see” a lipid bilayer membrane.
There are alternate explanations other than the “membrane-pump theory.”
Perhaps the most sophisticated is Gilbert Ling’s “association-induction hypothesis” (AI hypothesis).
Gilbert N. Ling (“Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Physiology: A Critical Review of Chemiosmotic Theory, and Reinterpretation by the Association-Induction Hypothesis,” Physiological Chemistry & Physics, 1981) wrote …
“The basic AI tenets are as follows:
“1. Water. The bulk of cell water exists in a physical state different from that of normal free liquid water. This state is characterized by dynamic polarized multilayers formed by interaction with a matrix of extended and more or less parallel polypeptide chains in which the repeating sequences of CONH groups are directly exposed to the bulk water.
“2. Ions. The bulk of intracellular K+ is adsorbed on ß- and γ-carboxyl groups of intracellular proteins.
“3. Cell surface barrier. The surface barrier is semipermeable. It consists primarily of polarized water, but includes surface proteins that offer fixed ionic and other sites essential for selectivity in solute permeability.
“4. Pumps and solute exclusion. Pumps in epithelial cell systems (e.g., frog skin, toad bladder, intestinal epithelium) would involve, as a rule, the entire cell — endowed with asymmetrical surfaces. Maintenance of the steady level of solutes in resting cells in general is not due to continually operating membrane pumps but reflects the combination of two basic mechanisms. The first mechanism is selective adsorption on macromolecular sites that tend to increase intracellular concentrations to above those in the external medium (e.g., K+). The second mechanism is reduced solubility in the polarized-multilayered cell water that tends to decrease intracellular concentrations of solutes to below those in the external medium (e.g., Na+). The larger and more complex the solute, the lower its equilibrium level in the cell water.
“5. Cell volume. Maintenance of cell volume as a rule is not directly dependent on an intact cell membrane, nor does it depend much on the small amount of free ions in the cell. Instead, it primarily reflects the reduced water activity in the state of polarized multilayers and the reduced solubility of the major external solute, Na+.
“6. Resting potential. The resting potential is not a Donnan or membrane potential but a surface adsorption potential. Its magnitude is determined by the nature and density of fixed anionic sites on the cell surface and the nature and concentration of the external ions adsorbed at these sites.”
IF THERE’S NO SUCH THING AS A LIPID BILAYER MEMBRANE, THEN THE FOLLOWING “SCIENTIFIC” PRONOUNCEMENTS ARE LUDICROUS …
“One likely target for DHA action is at the cell membrane where the fatty acid is known to readily incorporate into membrane phospholipids.”
“The Omega-3 fatty acid DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6) and its sister molecule EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5) are highlighted here. These highly unsaturated fatty acids are widespread in nature, especially in the marine environment, and are essential in membranes ranging from deep sea bacteria to human neurons.”
“The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for gray matter, which is membrane-rich tissue.”
“DHA is considered to exhibit its important functioning at the level of cell membranes where it is incorporated into the membrane phospholipid components to mediate its special structure-function effects.”
“DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behavior of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).”
“The presence of DHA as a membrane-fluidizing agent is essential to protect the membrane from damage caused by interactions with peptide aggregates.”
IF THERE’S NO SUCH THING AS A LIPID BILAYER MEMBRANE, THEN ALL OF THE ABOVE STATEMENTS (NOT TO MENTION COUNTLESS MORE) ARE MEANINGLESS MOONSHINE.
Pranarupa (“Membranes schmembranes: a living bio-energetic cellular physiology,,” Dec. 29, 2012) wrote …
“The cellular physiology presented in the works [of Albert] Szent-Gyorgyi, [Gilbert] Ling, [Gerald] Pollack, [Mae-Wan] Ho and [Ray] Peat, represents a radical departure from the infernal mechanical madness where we are expected to believe in labyrinthine networks of digital gene mediated protein signalling, a seemingly endless array of channels, pumps, and lock and key receptor mechanisms, muscular action occurring through mechanical actin-myosin cross bridge contraction, and nerves functioning through binary, on / off states, mediated through membrane channels and pumps. To add to the insanity this molecular machinery is all supposed to have jumbled together through processes of random chance.”