Lipid Bilayer Or Polarized Multilayers?


By Atom Bergstrom

Atom’s Blog


Re: Cells are not made from double fat layer with water in between — you’ve said it many times, but isn’t this shown looking through the microscope?

Ray Peat (“Membranes, plasma membranes, and surfaces,” 2006-2016) wrote …

“The ideas of a plasma membrane on the cell, and of the water-barrier function of the skin, are two distinct things, that have been blurred together in a thoughtless way.”

Go to Ray Peat’s website to read the rest of his blog entry for an explanation of why scientists “see” a lipid bilayer membrane.

There are alternate explanations other than the “membrane-pump theory.”

Perhaps the most sophisticated is Gilbert Ling’s “association-induction hypothesis” (AI hypothesis).

Gilbert N. Ling (“Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Physiology: A Critical Review of Chemiosmotic Theory, and Reinterpretation by the Association-Induction Hypothesis,” Physiological Chemistry & Physics, 1981) wrote …

“The basic AI tenets are as follows:

“1. Water. The bulk of cell water exists in a physical state different from that of normal free liquid water. This state is characterized by dynamic polarized multilayers formed by interaction with a matrix of extended and more or less parallel polypeptide chains in which the repeating sequences of CONH groups are directly exposed to the bulk water.

“2. Ions. The bulk of intracellular K+ is adsorbed on ß- and γ-carboxyl groups of intracellular proteins.

“3. Cell surface barrier. The surface barrier is semipermeable. It consists primarily of polarized water, but includes surface proteins that offer fixed ionic and other sites essential for selectivity in solute permeability.

“4. Pumps and solute exclusion. Pumps in epithelial cell systems (e.g., frog skin, toad bladder, intestinal epithelium) would involve, as a rule, the entire cell — endowed with asymmetrical surfaces. Maintenance of the steady level of solutes in resting cells in general is not due to continually operating membrane pumps but reflects the combination of two basic mechanisms. The first mechanism is selective adsorption on macromolecular sites that tend to increase intracellular concentrations to above those in the external medium (e.g., K+). The second mechanism is reduced solubility in the polarized-multilayered cell water that tends to decrease intracellular concentrations of solutes to below those in the external medium (e.g., Na+). The larger and more complex the solute, the lower its equilibrium level in the cell water.

“5. Cell volume. Maintenance of cell volume as a rule is not directly dependent on an intact cell membrane, nor does it depend much on the small amount of free ions in the cell. Instead, it primarily reflects the reduced water activity in the state of polarized multilayers and the reduced solubility of the major external solute, Na+.

“6. Resting potential. The resting potential is not a Donnan or membrane potential but a surface adsorption potential. Its magnitude is determined by the nature and density of fixed anionic sites on the cell surface and the nature and concentration of the external ions adsorbed at these sites.”


“One likely target for DHA action is at the cell membrane where the fatty acid is known to readily incorporate into membrane phospholipids.”

“The Omega-3 fatty acid DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6) and its sister molecule EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5) are highlighted here. These highly unsaturated fatty acids are widespread in nature, especially in the marine environment, and are essential in membranes ranging from deep sea bacteria to human neurons.”

“The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for gray matter, which is membrane-rich tissue.”

“DHA is considered to exhibit its important functioning at the level of cell membranes where it is incorporated into the membrane phospholipid components to mediate its special structure-function effects.”

“DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behavior of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).”

“The presence of DHA as a membrane-fluidizing agent is essential to protect the membrane from damage caused by interactions with peptide aggregates.”


Pranarupa (“Membranes schmembranes: a living bio-energetic cellular physiology,,” Dec. 29, 2012) wrote …

“The cellular physiology presented in the works [of Albert] Szent-Gyorgyi, [Gilbert] Ling, [Gerald] Pollack, [Mae-Wan] Ho and [Ray] Peat, represents a radical departure from the infernal mechanical madness where we are expected to believe in labyrinthine networks of digital gene mediated protein signalling, a seemingly endless array of channels, pumps, and lock and key receptor mechanisms, muscular action occurring through mechanical actin-myosin cross bridge contraction, and nerves functioning through binary, on / off states, mediated through membrane channels and pumps. To add to the insanity this molecular machinery is all supposed to have jumbled together through processes of random chance.”

'Lipid Bilayer Or Polarized Multilayers?' have 15 comments

  1. August 3, 2016 @ 1:00 am Atom

    The fish scrap and oil industry is worth billions in today’s 21st Century economy.

    Thus menhaden scraps are in our food and menhaden oil is in our chocolate.–e-books.php


  2. August 3, 2016 @ 1:01 am Atom

    “Honestly I think NASA is wonderful! America has always led the world in space exploration.” — Donald Trump (Jul. 27, 2016)


    • August 3, 2016 @ 9:27 pm David

      Vald would have something to say about that statement.
      Can you body dowse this interview Atom?


      • August 4, 2016 @ 3:03 pm Atom

        Side views are hard to “read.”

        Frontal views would give me lots more Body Language to work with, but foot contact is the only 100% sure-fire way to Body Dowse.

        No one’s mind can escape Body Dowsing. Pity if the CIA learns how easy the techniques are before the general public does …–illustrated.php


  3. August 3, 2016 @ 1:15 am Atom

    Thomas L. Friedman wrote The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (first published in 2005).

    Some people are taking his idea literally …


  4. August 3, 2016 @ 8:53 am Vera

    Thank you for this, I’ll read it many times.
    I’ve read this to my daughter, because she knows biology and chemistry better than me, and she’s preparing for medical school and she said that you are perfectly right. She also said that the water beings have to have DHA because they are in the deep water and they can’t absorb UV or any other sunshine rays. Their metabolic system must work on the other level then ours despite we are all eucariotes (I hope I wrote this so you can understand it, Eng is not my native language:) ). We, who live on the surface have the other mechanism or metabolic system, so we don’t need DHA to function properly.
    Can this be the “simple” truth, if you can understand this instant translation to Eng of a teenager’s theory :)


    • August 3, 2016 @ 4:39 pm Atom

      Your teenage daughter is very intelligent.

      And your English is better than that of many Americans!


  5. August 3, 2016 @ 7:53 pm James Vogt

    Hi Atom, It’s a treat to hear your monthly interview with Patrick. My question is regarding the miracle tooth brush you mentioned a few months ago. You said it is the tooth brush you personally use and that it is far superior to other methods of teeth cleaning. I think you said each bristle was tubular. Anyway, could you please let me know where to purchase this. I’d love to try it out.


    • August 4, 2016 @ 3:23 pm Atom

      I’ve never ordered my blotting brushes on-line, preferring to buy them from a local pharmacy.

      This company is selling the authentic blotting brush, but you might shop around for the best price …


      • August 5, 2016 @ 7:11 pm James Vogt

        Thank you, I’ll check it out!



        • August 6, 2016 @ 8:50 am Atom

          Get the best price, keeping in mind that a Peridontal Health Brush is not the same as a Blotting Brush … but it works ~almost~ as well.


  6. August 4, 2016 @ 9:50 am seb

    mold on pistachios: how bad is it for your health? i bought a bunch in dim light and came back noticing they have dark spots that i believe are mold. i’m on a budget so i’m eating them anyway, but sort of feel a dullness and headache coming on. are the regular antifungals and perhaps some bentonite clay enough to neutralize the toxins? i will be doing oil pulling as well to clear the blood. thank you always.


    • August 4, 2016 @ 3:25 pm Atom

      My philosophy is, “When in doubt, throw it out!”

      Some molds are harmless, others relatively harmless, others relatively dangerous, and others very dangerous.


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